Glossary of Terms

ABORIFACIENT: Herb which brings on an abortion. Usually must be taken in very large, nearly toxic doses. WARNING. Aborifacient herbs are dangerous to be taken without a physician's advice.

ACOLYTE: 1) a beginner or "novice" as used in many magickal orders. 2) sometimes used to denote the lowest rank in the group. See POND SCUM.

ADBERTOS: Literally means "sacrifice" and was part of the Celtic religious and community world-view. Rather than the negative connotation given to its English counterpart, adbertos was a positive idea denoting the giving to others, to the clan, and to the larger community as well as the deities. The Celts saw the giving or receiving of sacrifice as being inherent in every living moment. This is a very old word which came to the British Isles and Brittany from Celtic Gual.

ADEPT: 1) a master of the magickal arts. A skilled occult practitioner. 2) One who has reached true enlightenment. In some Craft traditions, it designates a particular stage of initiation.

AFFIRMATIONS: 1) a belief that repetitive "Positive Assertive Thoughts" will influence people & reality. 2) Also known as "Power of Positive Thinking."

AKASHA: the omnipresent fifth occult element and omnipresent spiritual power that permeates the universe. It is the energy out of which the Elements formed and which embraces the other four- earth, air, fire, and water; and from which they stem. This is the realm of pattern" or causality, from which the realm the normally thought of "five senses manifests. Some define it is the "other" of the "two worlds" that the witch or magician walks between.- the spiritual ether (or Aether)

AKASHIC RECORDS 1) the plane where all time and space meet, where one may find the answer to all things. 2) the source of "past life" memories.

ALCHEMY: 1) Science of transmuting metals. 2)transmutation of Inner Self to a higher more Spiritual plane.

ALEXANDRIAN TRADITION: A Wiccan religious tradition which traces its linage to Alex Sanders of England, who died in 1988. Alex and Maxine Sanders were the founders; The Alexandrian tradition is an offshoot of Gardnerian Wicca, but also includes traces of Ceremonial Magick, Egyptian & Classical religions, Qabala, and the teachings of Aleister Crowley. This tradition has become the most popular in England because of its openness which makes it more accessible to seekers.

ALGARD TRADITION: A Wiccan religious tradition founded by Mary Nesnick, of N.Y. City, in late 70's. Their Book of Shadows includes a combination of Gardnerian and Alexandrian components.

ALLAH: 'God' in Islamic theology; originally 'Al-Lat', the Moon.

ALL-POWER: A term which is used when reffering to the great power, or life source, of which the Goddess and God are both a part.

ALRAUN: a talismanic image made of rowan wood.

ALTAR: a table or sometimes any flat surface used to hold the symbols and tools during the performance of religious and magickal rituals. Sometimes the altar is round to Symbolize the Goddess, or square to represent the Elements. Best made of wood, and facing North East toward the rising of both Sun and Moon. Druid Altar is a flat stone laying across two upright stones. A Ceremonial Altar is wood and is constructed of two or three cubes stacked. Traditionally, the left 1/3 is reserved for the Goddess, the center for both Dieties, and the right 1/3, for the God.

AMERICAN TRADITION: This Wiccan tradition is an offshoot of Gardnerian Wicca, founded by Ed Fitch and several Southern Californian Gardnerians in the late 70's. The tradition includes Gardnerian material and additional material supplied by the founders. This tradition is sometimes known as Mohsian, after two of the founders whose last name was Mohs.

AMULET: a magically empowered object that deflects (sends away) specific, usually negative, energies. Generally, a protective object. See Talisman.

ANAPHRODISIAC: a substance, such as camphor, that reduces sexual desires.

ANGLESEY - An Island off the north coast of Wales which was a major Druidic center at the peak of Celtic domination in Britain.

ANIMA / ANIMUS: Jungarian concept that ANIMA, is the buried feminine element in a man's psyche & that ANIMUS is the buried masculine element in the female. This then fits to the Pagan views that Self and/or Soul, is both male & female, and with the concepts of reincarnation.

ANIMISTIC: the belief that all forms of Nature have a Divine Spirit within.

APHORISM: a sparsely worded, and direct little saying. Ex.: 'As above, So below.'

APHRODISIAC: a substance that produces sexual excitement. Similar to Viagra.

ARADIA: 1) was the Goddess daughter of Diana, & the Goddess of choice of Italian (STREGA) traditions. 2) A book by Charles Leland, purporting to be an actual “book of Shadows of an Italian Witch. Commonly used in many Wiccan traditions today.

ARCADIAN TRADITION: A Male oriented worship of the Horned God, less sexist than Dianic Wicca, as most Arcadian groups admit women.

ARCANA: 1) Secret knowledge. 2) used to denote a classification of the cards in a TAROT deck of cards. The Major Arcana being the "trumps" numbered from 0 to 21, the Minor Arcana being the 56 "court" cards.

ARCHETYPES: extremely basic forms within the human psyche; the archaic "racial memories"

AROMATHERAPY: 1) use of various flower, herb, oil and incense fragrances and smells. 2) HOLISTIC AROMA: uses massage and smell. 3) MAGICKAL AROMA: uses smell and visualization.

”AS ABOVE, SO BELOW.”: this saying means that universal & natural laws apply to inner & outer consciousness. That everything is connected and is part of everything else.

ASPECTS: qualities or characteristics of something or Diety, etc. Ex.: Luna is an aspect of the Moon Goddess. Orion is an aspect of the antlered or Horned God.

ASPECTING: when a person during a ritual or magickal exercise, manifests ASPECTS of a God/dess, with/in themselves.

ASPERGER: a bundle of fresh herbs or a perforated object, used for purificatory purposes to sprinkle water during or proceeding ritual.

ASSOCIATION OF CYMRY WICCAE: One of the oldest Witchcraft associations in the U.S. Founded in 1967, it provides member Churches, Covens or Groves with Federal I.R.S. Tax Exempt status. It has included every major Wicca tradition in its membership at one time or another. It consists of member Witch and Wiccan churches whose traditions derive most of their religious philosophy from Celtic sources. See also WELSH TRADITION and Y Dynion Mwyn.

ASTRAL: 1) a realm of existence parallel to physical reality but slightly apart from it. In this realm, both time and space may be traversed by the nonmaterial body. A wide variety of entities inhabit the astral; elementals, phantasms, ghosts and the conscious or dreaming presences of living individuals.

ASTRAL BODY: a duplicate of and existing within the physical body, but made of a substance not physical. However, this body can sometimes leave the physical body, and in some cases can temporarily create a separate physical body.

ASTRAL PLANES: various worlds of other dimensions which are co-existent with the earth plane.

ASTRAL PROJECTION: Out-of-Body-Experience (OOBE); transferring the consciousness from the physical body to the Astral Body. The act of separating the consciousness from the physical body and moving it about at will.

ASTROLOGY: 1) the belief that the relative positions of planets, planetoids and stars, can influence events & behavior surrounding us. 2) the method used in calculating these related happenings. ASTRONOMY is the hard science.

ASTROLOGY, NATAL: refers to calculating the planetary influences at the time of the subject's birth.

ATAVISM, ATAVISTIC: refers to characteristics of all living organisms, that has a hereditary characteristic trait or deformity which shows up after having skipped a generation or more. The reversion to the original type, like if you plant a hybrid seed but it grows up like its wild ancestor.

ATHAME: "a-THAY-me" the Witch's traditional magical tool, the consecrated, black-handled dagger. It is never used to cut, but can be used to defend; a personal knife, usually made of steel and is double bladed or edged; with a black handle. Double edged to Symbolize that power works both ways: healing & harming, creation & destruction; light & dark. Both sides necessary & both sides needing to be controlled. The black absorbs power. The owner often engraves magick symbols into the metal. A magickal tool associated with change makes it the symbol of the Element - Fire, and its phallic nature links it to the God. It's direction is the South.

AURA: the colored, low level energy field that surrounds living tissue.


AVATAR: an advanced soul, who chooses to return to a physical body, in order to teach less evolved souls. Ex.: Buddha, Jesus, Mohammed, & Zoraster.

BACULUM: Witches rod, staff, wand or "broomstick" used in divination and certain fertility spells.

BALEFIRE: a ritual fire built for a outdoor Sabbat Festival. The Balefire is used for magickal purposes and is traditionally lit on Yule, Beltaine & Midsummer. The name comes from the Anglo Saxon word Boon meaning "gift" or something extra.

BANE / BANEFUL: that which destroys life. Poisonous, dangerous, destructive.

BANISH: the magickal act of driving away evil or negativity. A strong purification, sometimes associated with the removal of 'spirits'.

BARD: An ancient teacher who taught by the use of poems and song. They were a class of Druid who were the poets and singers that kept alive valuable oral traditions through song. These songs were called "cetel in Ireland and lay in Brittany. They could also be used as magickal spells to curse or bless those who they were directed at.

BARDIC TRADITION: A tradition derived from Celtic Druidism (see Druids)

BARROW: an elvin or Celtic burial mound often used by covens for Sabbats.

BAUCHAN: (Buckwan) A less friendly type of brownie. One of the few types who will not leave when seen by the human residents of his home. They mostly stay around just to play tricks, but can be very helpful when the proper mood strikes (i.e. - Callum mor Macintosh had a love/hate relationship with his Baucan companion. The love side must have been stronger because when Callum moved to the states his Bauchan came before him & cleared his plot of land for him.)

BEASTIE: a term for the little house spirits that beg for attention by stealing your keys and driving your cat crazy! Can be overly protective, and helpful though really mischievious if you don't acknowledge them from time to time. There is no way to command their loyality or bonding with you; however, earnest 'willing' and 'calling' for such will generally bring one to you. Negative magick and exercises on YOUR part, will drive one away. 1) one's pets. 2) small house entities or spirits.

BCE: BeforeCommonEra is the nonreligeous equivalent of BC.

BELL: 1) An altar tool, symbol of the Goddess and rung during ritual to invoke Her. Also rung to ward off negative or evil and to evoke good energies. 2) to signal the beginning and/or end of a spell. Can symbolize the motion of the Elements and its swinging to and fro, represent the extremes of good and evil; positive and negative.

BELTANE OR BEALTAINE- This Sabbat is celebrated on May 1st. It is rife with fertility rituals and symbolimsm, and is a celebration of the sacred marriage of the Goddess and God. the festival celebrated on April 30th or May 1st. It also celebrates the maturity of the God to manhood and the union of the God and Goddess, and her fertility. Also the traditional Sabbath where the rule of the "Wheel of the Year" is returned to the Goddess. Also called May Day, the old English May Pole tradition was of a phallic symbol, marking the return of vitality, passion and consumated hopes. One of the Ancient Celtic "Fire Festivals." on this night, the cattle were driven between two bonfires to protect them from disease. Couples wishing for fertility would " jump the fires" on Beltane night. This Festival also marks the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from those of Maiden to Mother Pronounced b' YALt'n. Also see NOSWYL MAI.

BESOM: broom, usually the round type. Symbol of the Element Water.

BEYOND THE VEIL: is a term pertaining to those things beyond our 'normal' 5 senses, such as angels, fairies, ghosts, etc. & things like channeling.

BIDDY: 1) a 'doll' made from the last sheaf from the last harvest - SEE CORN DOLLY. 2) the little 4" doll was made from material scraps.

BIGOTRY: willful ignorance.

BIND: To cast a spell upon, also to practice ligature.

BIORHYTHM / CIRCADIAN RHYTHM: this is the study of 3 physical, intellectual, & emotional vibrations or components, that start when we are born or at conception; OPINIONS VARY. These then are tracked to predict high & low days in a person's life. More simply put - these are our INTERNAL CLOCKs, doing things like changing our temperature & blood pressure throughout the day... PHYSICAL: state of the body, trength, vigor, pain, etc. INTELLECTUAL: state of the mind, logical thinking, problem solving ability, etc. EMOTIONAL: state of personality, happy, irritated, angry, sad, elated, etc.

BIRTHSTONE OR SUNSTONE: the crystal assigned to one's birthmonth, representing the Sun aspect. A natalstone.

BLESSED BE: a traditional greeting among Witches. Pronounced as three syllables.

BODHRAN: The traditional goat skin drum used in Celtic music and ritual.

BOGGART: Another Brownie type Faerie quite akin to a poltergeist. A Yorshire family had a Boggart that lived in their cupboard & caused so much mischief that they felt they were forced to move to get away from it. That is until everything was packed up & ready to go & the boggart popped out of the butterchurn & revealed that he was coming with them.

BOLLINE: a white handled knife, single edged to reflect it's working nature, and used in ritual purposes of cutting herbs, or engraving candles, etc. It is a working tool as opposed the magickal Athame. The white is to tell it apart from the black handle. Sometimes pictured as a miniature scythe, a curved bladed tool; a magickal sickle, used to cut herbs and mistletoe.

BOOK OF SHADOWS: (1) a compendium of Witch rituals, spells, training techniques, procedures, guidelines, and other materials important to a Witch and/or coven. There are many types of these books in existence, a large number of them have been published even though most witches consider the contents a secret. (2) a Wiccan book of rituals, spells and other magickal lore. Best when handwritten. This is a very personal item, some say it should be destroyed at the 'passing over' of its owner, preferably by their Coven or Circle members. (3)Traditionally hand copied book of rituals, recipes, training techniques, guidelines, and other materials deemed important to a Witch or a coven. Each tradition has it's own standard version of the Book and each Witch's book will be different as he or she adds to it with time from many different sources. Only another Witch can see your book of shadows. Also, traditionally, it may never leave your hands or possession until death, when it should be destroyed, or (in some traditions) returned to the coven to be disposed of.

BOOK, MIRROR: a diary record of personal magickal events.

BOUQUET: in perfumery, a blend of natural or synthetic scents which produce a specific odor.

BRAZIER: a thurible or incense burner. Usually ceramic or metal and often designed to be suspended or swung by a chain; usually ornate. The Brazier is often partly filled with sand so that incense sticks may be inserted or charcoal briquettes placed inside to burn. Catholics call this a Censer.

BREED: is a mis-spelling of the phonetic sounding 'Bride', another name for Brigid, etc. and refers to the Goddess as well as the holiday of Imbolc, Candlemas, etc...Feb. 1st. See GWYL FAIR

BREW: see infusion.

BRIGID: also see Candlemas, a Sabbat Festival customarily held on February 2 eve. Also see GWYL FAIR:

BRITISH TRADITION: This tradition of Wicca actually has two sub divisions: 1. Any of the old traditions closely related to the Gardnerian Craft but excluding family traditions and other British traditions dissimilar to Gardnerian Wicca. 2.) Any of the old British traditions, including the old family and Bardic traditions.

BROWNIE: The most famous of the house sprites. A Brownie will stick around & finish extra cleaning as long as he gets food for his labor. The food must never be directly offered to the Brownie & one must never try to see him. The breaking of either of these taboos will cause the Brownie to become angry & leave. A well treated Brownie can be incredibly helpful, & faithful to no end. He will often punish the servants, call for a midwife or doctor when one is needed, & some have loved their human companion so much that they are said to have immigrated to America with them. The best place to leave food for a Brownie is on a warm hearth.

BURIN: an engraving tool, often made with wooden handle carved by user and a sharpened nail.

BURNING TIMES- Refers to the times from the Spanish Inquisiton through the last outburst of persecution and witch killings in the mid nineteenth century. This was the period of history called the 'Middle Ages", when an arguable number of persons were put to death, suposedly for witchcraft. Burning was hardly the only manner of death, & witchcraft hardly the only reason. The Christian Church, during this time stamped out religious practices they didn't understand, & added a great deal of wealth to their coffers; as did landowners greedy of their neighbors. A term used by some Witches for the period of persecution in the Middle Ages and later. It is in fact a misnomer in some places, as Witches were only burned in Scotland, and on the continent of Europe. In England and the U.S., they were hanged.Although the murderous persecutions began as early as the twelfth century. The last known capital sentance for witchcraft in the West took place in Scotland in the early 1800s. Figures vary on how many were killed during this hysteria, estimates range anywhere from fifty thousand to as many as nine million.

CABALA (ALSO SPELLED KABBALAH or QABBALAH): collection of Jewish theological and philosophical learning commonly used as the basis for the Western Ceremonial Magickal Tradition.

CABOCHON: a cut and polished stone, with one rough face.

CAIRN: The stone burial mounds used by the Celts. They were honored at Mabon. So sacred were these mounds that a breed of dog, the Cairn Terrier was developed to protect them.

CANDLE DRESSING: candle should be held pointing north-south. It is massaged with oil proper to the ritual to be done; or use pure virgin olive oil. Massage from the center of the candle toward each end.

CANDLEMAS: Festival held on Feb. 1. One of the 4 Celtic "Fire Festivals. Commemorates the changing of the Goddess from the Crone to the Maiden. Celebrates the first signs of Spring. Also called "Imbolc" (the old Celtic name). This is the seasonal change where the first signs of spring and the return of the sun are noted, i.e. the first sprouting of leaves, the sprouting of the Crocus flowers etc. In other words, it is the festival commemorating the successful passing of winter and the beginning of the agricultural year.This Festival also marks the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from those of Crone to Maiden.

CAPE: an outer garment, thrown back behind the shoulders to cover the back; like Superman's cape.

CARDINAL POINT: North, East, South, & West. These are often marked in the Circle, by candles of green, red, yellow, and blue, respectively. You can use candles, crystals, & herbs.

CARTOMANCY: the act of reading cards in divination work.

CATHARSIS: is from CATHARTIC, which is a purgative; sort of like intestinal flu!

CATHARIZE: means to clean & purify, then CATHARSIS: also means to purify but usually thought of as emotional rather than physical, like calming music or a pretty picture; it clears the mind, soothing the emotions, etc.

CATHOLIC: with a small 'c', means: open to all', a generic name borrowed by the first Christians to entice people into their churches.

CAULDRON: an iron, fire proof pot or kettle. Usually having 3 claw feet and a handle, this is from the Celtic stories of Kerridwen, whose cauldron had three powers: inexhautibility, regeneration, and inspiration. It's use is for cooking or brewing and is the symbol of the Goddess, the Element Water, and reincarnation, immortality and inspiration. Linked to witchcraft in popular mind, this is a primal Goddess image used like a chalice or cup. In many of the mythological stories of Ireland and Britain the cauldron is symbolic of the womb of the Mother Goddess in which all life begins, ends, and regenerates. The Irish word is coire and Welsh is pair.

CELTIC TRADITION: 1.) Old Celtic Tradition as practiced by the late Lady Gwynne (or Gwen) Thompson d. 1987. This is a tradition similar to Welsh Traditional but which adopted rituals similar to those of Gardnerian. This Family Tradition derived from Southern Welsh sources and was brought to the U.S. through Nova Scotia. 2.) American Celtic Tradition as practiced by Lady Sheba (Jessie Bell) allegedly derived from Family traditional, Mike Howard of "The Cauldron" in Wales, and Gardnerian sources. 3.) In England, British Celtic covens are called tribes and are led by Elders instead of High Priests and High Priestesses. See WELSH TRADITION

CE: Common Era is the nonreligeous equivalent of AD.

CENSER: 1) A heat-proof container in which incense is smoldered; an incense burner or any similar object. 2) Symbol of the element Air. see BRAZIER

CENTERING: the act of feeling solid, balanced and focused emotionally.

CERNUNNOS: a much used Witches God-name. The only known name of the Celtic Horned God of Nature.

CHAKRA: the term encompassing the Power Points of the body; these are spinning 'wheels' of energy: ..........about 2" above your head is a chakra that works with your Higher Consciousness.

The Seven Major Chakras: ..........Crown / pituitary ..........3rd Eye / pineal ..........throat / thyroid ..........heart / thymus plexus / lyden ..........spine / adrenal ..........lumbar / gonads

Plus various Minor Chakras: .....such the ones the center of your hand palms .....soles of the feet .....behind each eye front of ears, where the jaw bone hinge is .....above each breast .....behind the knees However, the one behind the knees or a separate one (?) is about 2" above the knee, then about 1" toward the inside of the leg; if your press & release several times (don't rub!), you can neutralize leg pain sometimes.

CHALICE: a Water Element symbol. A symbol of marriage, abundance, and inexhaustible sustenance; see Cauldron for same qualities. A ceremonial cup or goblet placed on the altar and representing water and the west, and it is also representative of the femanine principle of creation.

CHAPLET: A crown worn on the head and usually made of flowers and worn at Beltane. Chaplets can also be made of vines and other natural material.

CHARM: set of spoken, written or chanted magickal words. Also an object carried for its beneficial magickal influence.

CHANNELING, PHYSICAL: is the action of psychic impulses on a physical level; such as using a tarot deck.

CHANNELING, MENTAL: is the action of psychic impulses on a mental level; such as clairvoyance. A term often used by authors wishing to sell their books, as this was quite a 'fad' for several years... it's the exercise where a person 'channels' the thoughts of a person considered 'dead'. This includes spirit entities, 'angels', & deceased persons.

CHARGE OF THE GODDESS: not an exercise but a well-known literary work. Doreen Valiente wrote it for Gardner and it came from the Charge of the Goddess in Aradia, Gospel of the Witches by Charles Leland. The High Priestess intones these words, as the Goddess to her 'hidden children' during ritual.

CHARGING / TO CHARGE: to infuse an object with your personal power.

CHATOYANCY: the property of some stones such as Tiger's Eye or Moonstone; of showing apparent movement, illumination or opalescence, within it.

CHEIROMANCY: the act of reading palms, or PALMISTRY; in divination work. Pronounced, kie ro mancy.

CHTHONIC: of or pertaining to the depths of the Earth. There seem to be rather powerful chthonic magickal or psychic forces tied in with the structure of each planet. 2) a type of Magick associated with the Necronomicon of H.P. Lovecraft. Not real,

CINGULUM: Witch's girdle cord.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: is the same thing as biorhythms.

CIRCLE: 1) sphere of magick, either personal or coven. 2) looser group of Wiccans, not part of a Coven. 3) should really be thought of as a globe rather than a Circle. It is a place not of this world nor of the world of the Gods, but a place between the worlds where we can meet the Gods.

CIRCLE DANCE: a ceremonial or recreational dance wherein the members of a grove or coven link hands and move deosil within a ceremonial area. The basic grapevine circle step is "right foot cross over, left foot sidestep, right foot cross back, left foot sidestep, etc.

CLAN: The extended family system of the Celts. Originally clans were united by being decended from a single female ancestor, but by the third century C.E. that had been largely supplanted by a male ancestor. The clan raised children, built cities, provided education, had an internal justice system connected to the larger political region in which they lived, and formed armies for mutual protection.

CLAIMING: Action of consciously/unconsciously of seeing an object you want VERY much, & placing a psychic 'mark' on it, that holds the item until you can get it... also called 'MARKING IT.'

CLAIRVOYANCE: the ability to see things not normally perceptible to sight; means clear seeing. CLAIRVOYANT: is the person with this ability. CLAIRAUDIENCE: means 'clear hearing'. CLAIRSENTIENCE: means 'clear sensing' or empathy.

CLOAK: an outer garment that sits across the shoulders covering the back & coming across to cover the front, with a clasp at the neck.

CLURICAUNE: Perhaps the most amusing of house spirits. A cousin to the Leprechaun the Cluricaune somehow ended up lacking any of his well-known relatives industriousness. His primary concern is wine, wine, & more wine. The only way the Cluricaune really will help you is by scaring greedy drinkers away from your wine stock. (Doesn't really help much anyway since he will end up drinking it all himself.) It is wise to watch your alcohol intake when you have a Cluricaune they don't like anyone else drinking too much of "their" wine: usually a good hearty pinch is the price for drunkeness.

COMING OF AGE RITUAL: At age thirteen for boys, and at the time of a girls first menstral cycle, Pagan children are considered to be spiritual adults. They join with other Pagans to celebrate their new maturity with rituals and parties and are permitted full membership in covens. This is also the time when ritual tools are given to them as gifts, or else the are allowed to choose their own.

COMEHITHER: The act of 'calling' something or someone to get in touch with you. Sometimes used in reference to an item that wants a person. Such as a crystal, that you feel compelled to buy; or a person you feel compelled to phone. Goes both ways...

COLOR BREATHING: a method of concentrating on breathing various colors to have a mental, emotional, and physical effect on the body.

CONCENTRATION: focusing the mind on one object or idea so that nothing else exists during the period of concentration.

CONE OF POWER: the force raised from the assembled members of the grove or coven working in the circle for a specific purpose. Some raise power during ritual, then form it into CONE shape & send it out on the world in a magickal spell.

CONJURATION: act of summoning non-physical entities.

CONJURE: to work magic, usually by setting up an altar or central concentration point and focusing the mind by chants, mantras or invocations.

CONSECRATION: 1) A ritual of sanctification or purification. 2) A ritual of dedication.

CONTACT: a non-physical being who acts as a guide and instructor.

CORDS OF LIFE: is a Starhawk ritual. Using decorated & colored cords, the purpose is to get an idea of 'you reap what you sow.'

CORN DOLLY: a human shaped formed from braided grain (not corn husks) stocks, with grain heads where the head is located. Represents the Mother Earth's fertility. Often made from the last of the harvest...SEE BIDDY.

COVEN: an organized group of Witches and/or Wiccans led by a Priestess, Priest or both, and joined through initiation. Covenstead: the home of the coven. Covendom: is a circle around the Covenstead, traditionally 3 miles across. Latin :VENIRE & COM = together & to come or move. Middle English: COVIN = a group of confederates. Old French : COVINE = group with a single purpose. Traditionally, a coven consists of thirteen females and males. An equal number of men and women is optimum for working purposes.

COVENDOM: the area watched over by a coven.

COVENSTEAD: the meeting place of the coven, also called a temple.

COWAN: unwelcome non-Pagan intruder. Non-craft person, an outsider. Term also used by freemasons to describe the same type of person. a person, not of Wiccan beliefs. It use to refer, as a derogatory term for a 'fake' or 'gameplayer' Pagan; a FOOL who doesn't know what they are talking about.

COYOTE: a tricky, prankster, perverse or clowning person named after the Nat.Am. 'Coyote', who tricks man into learning needed lessons.

CRAFT, THE: the Witches name for the practice of Witchcraft or Wicca craft referring to CRAFT of the Wise Ones.

CROMACH: A Scottish walking stick with a crooked handle similar to an Irish shillelagh.

CROMLECH: Welsh word for an uneven structure of stone often used by a grove as a temple.

CRONE: 1) Third aspect of the Mother Goddess. 2) A Witch of 50 or 56 yrs, or post menopause. 3) A term of respect. CRONING, then is the ritual which celebrates a person reaching this status. The Crone Goddess is symbolized by the waning moon, the carrion crow, the cauldron, and the color black. Her Sabbats are Mabon and Samhain. She rules from Lughnasadh to Samhain, when the God aspects take over. The male counterpart can be a Sage or Seer depending on tradition.

CROSS-QUARTER DAYS: the traditional Pagan holidays which occur exactly between each Sabbat or seasonal festival; i.e., Candlemas, Beltane, Lammas and Samhain. These are the 4 holidays that fall between the Quarter holidays, see next... they are the midpoints of the season or Quarters & relate to lambing, harvest, planting, & slaughter times. As opposed to Solar dates of QUARTERS, these being the 4 holidays that recognize Solstices & Equinoxes.

CRYSTAL: any of the many types of gems, minerals and rocks, which are used according to their characteristic vibrations or qualities in Earth Magic.

CRYSTAL BALL: though many types of crystal can be bought in sphere (round) form, this term is almost exclusively a reference to the clear quartz type, used for scrying and divination. Its round shape makes it a Goddess symbol, which is why periodic moonbaths will keep it clear of negative energies and enhance its psychic powers.

CUP: an altar tool that often looks like a cauldron on a stem. Symbol of the Goddess and fertility; and of the Element Water.

CURSE: a conscious direction of negative energy toward a person, place, or thing.

DAGDYNE: Witch's magickal sewing needle.

DAWNSIO: To dance

DAYS OF POWER: see Sabbat.

DEATH: is reference to the physical body NOT the Soul or Spirit, which is usually believed to go on to another body in the exercise of REINCARNATION. DEATHING: is the exercise of sitting with a 'dying' person as comforter or can be the ritual exercised to ease the soul 'over' into its new existence. DEATH IN SERVICE: meaning service to life; is the natural death such as from illness, old age, child birth, rescue attempts or self sacrifice to help another. BUT does NOT include murder, execution, suicide, war, torture deaths, etc. TO ME...Death is that state of existence consisting of change, evaluation, planning, & forgetting...DenElder

DEDICATION: is like a solemn promise or vow, like dedicating yourself to Wicca before being actually initiated. Pledging yourself, would be a dedication.

DEGREES: this varies between traditions but a DEGREE is a level of expertise recognized by a more adept person. Sometimes these are meaningless, self vanities but usually a 1st Degree person can work in rituals; 2nd Degree maybe could lead the ritual; and 3rd Degree can teach & do initiations. Some groups talk about dozens of Degrees, etc. & other people don't have any but are still just as qualified. It can get VERY confusing! As with most Wicca exercises, the person must ASK to be DEGREED, however I don't know what happens if there is nobody TO ask... Some High Priest/esses can recite their LINEAGES, that is: 'my degree from so & so, who got theirs from so & so', etc.

DEMON: non-physical spirit; also called elemental, deva, angel. In Christian mythology this word refers to evil entities who are governed by Satan.

DEOSIL: The act of moving in a clockwise circle, following the Sun and Moon's motion in the sky. It represents positive energy & a building up of, or creation of energy & exercise. Opposite of Widdershins. Standard direction of movement within a ritual area or consecrated circle. This is the traditional direction one works in for creative magick. Also called Sunwise.

DEVA: angelic or radiant beings having great intelligence. They help guide nature by their understanding of the Divine Plan. The direct energies of nature.

DEVIL: Gypsy word meaning "little god." Christians used the word to describe fallen angels who united with Lucifer. Witches and Pagans do not believe in this Christian deity.

DIANIC TRADITION: 1.) A feminine based craft movement, which rejects the concept of the Male God, concentrating on the worship of the Goddess. Named after Diana, virgin goddess of the hunt; a stem of the Old Religion which has all-female members. 2.) The Old Dianic Tradition. This a particular English tradition of Witchcraft honoring the Goddess Diana. It is a structured tradition and fairly similar to Gardnerian Wicca. Morgan McFarland, Mark Roberts, and Sybil Leek brought this tradition from England. It is called the Old Dianic tradition as opposed to the New Dianic tradition started by Z. Budapest. 3.) The New Dianic Tradition is a particular tradition founded by Z. Budapest and other modern feminists. It has a loose ritual structure, a small core of feminist teachings, and encourages spontaneity among its members. Most covens accept women only, some accept only lesbians, a few accept women and men. 4.) The original tradition of Shan, Clan Mother to the House of the Goddess in London, England. This tradition seems to have used a little of everything in it's formation, but primarily derives most of its teachings from the New Dianic Tradition. In the Dianic Tradition, there is much diversity in ritual and religious practice. Most covens honor the Goddess primarily or exclusively. Quite a few are Goddess Monotheistic.

DISTAFF: ancient spinning implement. In archaic times, it was figuratively said that the Great Goddess sun the Earth and all things from Her distaff. In Nordic and Central European folklore, the line linking the axis of the Earth with the north star was called the distaff.

DIVINATION: magickal method of looking into the future or the past or seeking unknown information through the use of various oracles. 1) the ritual process designed to contact the psychic mind. 2) the magickal act of dicovering the unknown. 3) the act (DIVINING) of contacting the psychic mind by tricking, or drowsing, the Conscious Mind through ritual & observation of, or manipulation of, tools. NOTE: this isn't necessary for those who can easily attain communication with the psychic mind, though they may practice it. 4) The art of connecting with the divine, or to see a situation from a 'divine' view. 5) Often inaccurately described as 'fortune telling'. 6) Divination is a way to emotionally detach from events in order to see them more clearly. In this way past, present, and future situations can be sorted out and dealt with from a more advantageous perspective. Tools of divination vary widely and can include: Tarot cards, Runes, tea leaves, palms, dice, playing cards, omens seen in natural forms such as birds, fire, water, crystal or glass spheres, clouds, patterns in sand, eggs, entrails, faces and scalp formations, wax, etc.

DIVINE POWER: the Life Force or Energy, which exist in the God and Goddess and the ultimate source of all things.

DOLMEN: The standing stones of the Celtic countries which are shaped like altars with one large capstone being upheld by two endstones. It is also called a Cromlech. An ancient structure of stone used as a burial space. Often used by a grove as a place of power.

DOWSER: a person who is adept at using pendulum type devices; often though, it's the Water Dowser that comes to mind, but this is only one aspect.

DRAWING DOWN THE MOON: the bringing of Goddess Power into one's Self, especially during ritual. Physical changes such as voice pitch or aura brilliance can occur.

DRUIDISM or DRUIDRY: one of the several religions which predominated in Gaul and the other Celtic countries from approximately 3000 B.C.E. to approximately 300 C.E. The emphasis was on worship or reverence for the Oak tree and the Mistletoe which grew thereon.

DUALISM: in theology, usually refers to the division of all things divine into two categories, female/male, positive/negative, light/dark, cold/hot, goddess/god

EARTH FAIRIES: four main types which reside on the surface and underground. Surface fairies are tree spirits and garden fairies. Underground fairies are gnomes and rock fairies.

EARTH POWER: the manifested Divine Power found in natural things. Can be utilized by magick for needed change.

ECLECTIC: a mixture of beliefs borrowed from various Traditions and Theologies, as opposed to one Tradition or Theology and its set mode of ritual and belief.

ELDER: has various meanings in different branches of the Craft, but usually refers to one of advanced degree. In some traditions, it means one who has been a third degree for more than a year. 1.) In some three degree traditions, a Witch of Third degree, who has spent 3 years and 3 days in formal training. 2.) A Coven Leader. 3.) a Witch who has enough knowledge to preserve and teach their tradition to neophytes from scratch, without benefit of books. 4.) In Y Dynion Mwyn it means one who has obtained a fourth level initiation.

ELDER ONES: in Pagan mythology worldwide, it is noted that there were advanced races who either died or migrated into other lands (planes) either before the coming of mankind or very early in the history of the Earth. They were considered to have great magickal powers and high spirituality. See also Loa.

ELEMENTALS: naturally created beings which have sentience and usually intelligence. These include gnomes (Earth), sylphs (air), undines (water) and salamanders (fire), plus a great number of nature elementals such as fairies, leprechauns, tree maidens, dragons, peris, djins, sylvans, satyrs, fauns, elves, dwarfs, trolls, kobolds, brownies, nixies, pixies, goblins, manikins, moss people, etc.

ELEMENTS: the four basic manifestations of matter; earth, fire, water and air; also spirit or ether. These 4 essences are the building blocks of the Universe. These are Earth, Air, Fire, Water, and the fifth element of pure spirit in, of and outside them all. Each Pagan tradition has their own tools, directions, and correspondences. Everything that exists, or has the potential to exist, contains one or more of these energies. These 4 elements formed from Primal Essence or power, Akasha. AND for the Practitioner who wonders, "What the HECK are those people talking about?"

ELF FIRE: fire used to light the balefire; produced without the use of metals; also called needfire; It also describes the fire which is kept all year long by the Elders and is used to light the balefire at the end of the year which is used to light the new elf fire.

ELF LIGHTS: are made of little cairns of stone, with inside room for a small candle in its glass holder. The stones are staggered so that when lit, the light shines through. A loose stone covers the top a few inches above the flame. These are wonderful little garden lights!

ELIXIR: the liquid made by placing a gem or crystal, in a glass of water for a specified length of time, then drank. TAKE CRYSTAL OUT FIRST!

EMPATH: a person who can feel the emotions of other animate (living) entities, such as human, plant or animal. Some include inanimate objects as well under this word. NOTE: see Psychometry: inanimate objects.

EMPOWER / EMPOWERING: the movement of personal energies into herbs, stones, and other objects. These tools, or objects, are then used for magick. In herbs, empowering aligns the energies within the herbs with magical goals.

ENERGY: this is the natural vibration or power that we tap into or raise, in our spells & rituals. 1) There are those who think of the Energy, as something they raise or generate. 2) Others think this Energy is there for the trained person to tap into & direct.

ENFLEURAGE: a French perfumery term describing the process of extracting essential flower oils, with purified fat. Also known as POMMADE.

ENGLISH TRADITIONAL: See British Traditional

EPHEMERIS: an astrology term, it refers to a collection of precise dates & calculations, of when certain planets were where & when.

EQUINOX: Equinox: twice a year, VERNAL (Spring) & AUTUMNAL; the Sun is exactly over the Earth's middle or EQUATOR. This produces for one day the equal number of light & dark hours all over the world. These are two Pagan high holidays.

ESBAT: The monthly Pagan holy time which coincides with the full moon. The word is from the French esbattre meaning to frolic. Pagan or Wiccan ceremonial time held between the high holidays and cross-quarter days; usually a full moon rite.

ESP / EXTRA SENSORY PERCEPTION: 1) beyond the senses. 2) An awareness of events or emotions not present to the physical senses. Usually included is 4 types: telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychokinesis. 3) acronym for extra sensory perception.

ESSENTIAL OIL: the fragrant 'blood' or liquid of a plant, usually flower.

ETHEREALS: see Essential oil.

EVIL: is not a word or thought used much by Wiccans. And more associated with the Christian & Satan beliefs.

EVIL EYE: laying a curse upon a person by looking at them.

EVOCATION: calling up elemental forces; call up spirits or other nonphysical entities, either to visible appearance or invisible attendance. Opposite of Invocation.

EXORCISM: 1) traditionally, the process of driving out negativities or spirits (demons). 2) in herb magick, a powerful purification.

FAERIES: A term that in reality is used to cover many things that are of absolutely no relation to the true faerie folk. True faeries are members of the Dynion Mwyn or the Daoine Sidhe. I'm sure it can be used a bit more broadly than that, but I'm biased.

FAIRY TRADITION: 1.) Wiccan tradition practiced by Victor Anderson and the late Gwydion Pendderwen, and their students. Sometimes called Old Fairy. See also Welsh Tradition. 2.) Wiccan practice derived from the teachings of Starhawk sometimes called New Fairy.

FAMILIAR: a magickal equal but animal partner, it shows unusual psychic & intelligent qualities with its human counterpart. Not merely a pet. And sometimes a created Being from the Will of the person.

FASCINATION: casting a spell on someone when in close contact by using power only.

FEALTY: dedication of service and friendship to another.

FESTIVALS: times for Pagan and Witch celebrations; high holidays and cross-quarter days.

FETCH: 1) The spiritual or ghostly double of an animal or person. 2) An apparition. 3) semi-tangible human or animal shape formulated by the Witch's power sent to do the bidding of the Witch.

FEY: a Welsh term for fairy-like qualities, usually of clairvoyant nature.

FIVEFOLD KISS: this goes with the 'Blessed Be..' blessings & you kiss what you are blessing...(1) each foot (2) each knee (3) at 'private area' (4) each breast (5) lips... which really gets you 8 kisses but in 5 areas.

FLAME DANCING: An exercise in Mind Control attempting to control from a distance, a candle flame; to make it burn steady & still, or 'dance'. The ultimate goal being to snuff the candle.

FOLK MAGIC: the practice of combining Personal Power with Natural Energies, to create a specific purpose.

FUNDAMENTALIST OR FUNDY: a politically right-wing religious conservative. They are the 'know-it-alls' of the Christian belief structure & very aggressive. Disrespectful & ignoring of others rights to freedom of religion, they disapprove even of other Christians. The Bible is IT! Literally, & no discussion about it.

GAIAN: a term which recognizes the Earth Goddess Gaia, as a living, breathing organism. Then everything else, is PART of it, rather than APART from it.

GARDNERIAN TRADITION: a Wiccan tradition originated in the 40's and 50's by Gerald Gardner with the help of Doreen Valiente and others; This tradition is Celtic in origin, encompassing rituals as practiced in the south of England. It incorporates within its rituals and philosophy, certain ideas first published by Charles Leland (Aradia - Gospel of the Witches). It also refers to one who traces linage directly back to Gerald Gardner and one of his High Priestesses in an unbroken line. There are three known fully recognized Gardnerian lineages in the United States. In the U.S., The Long Island Line, The Kentucky Line and the Donna Cole Line are most prominent. A fourth line, the emerging California Line, is an offshoot of the Long Island Line. Gardnerians in the United States tend to be highly attentive to lineage and its traceability. Some Gardnerian Witches will not recognize the initiation of another if the initiation was through a male.

GEAS: a Magickal Obligation that a Welsh Witch places him or herself under in order to prove his or her honor for the Gods. This is a very misunderstood term. The Witch may voluntarily accept a Geas, but a Geas can also be placed upon someone whom you wish to obligate. Also, a Sacred Trust.

GEOMANCER is someone who practices the art of GEOMANCY, which is a system of divination that consists of making a random number of marks either on paper or a shallow box filled with earth, then constructing a pattern of dots from those marks, which are then interpreted for the answer. If you would like to know more about how this is done, The Golden Dawn by Israel Regardie has a chapter about it. It's a rather complicated system, and it's used mostly in connection with ceremonial magic.

GESTURE: the hand or arm movement, that is the silent counterpart to spoken words or music.

GOBLET: cup or chalice.

GOD: male aspect which pervades all of the universe in vast interrelationships of every possible sort, providing impetus, creative spark and more. It is capable of being perceived in many ways depending on the perceiver and transcends time as well as space. Most perceptions of the great gods are valid in their own aspects and are or can be of considerable value. Pagans often choose the archetypal god of the waxing year as patron of all which is new and growing, and the god of the waning year as patron of all which ripens and declines, before the inevitable rebirth. Such perceptions enable us to form close emotional and magickal links with godhood. He is the divine equal and counterpart to the Goddess. Often depicted as the Green God of Summer and the Horned God of Winter. He is seen as the Sun, without which we couldn't survive. His life, then is honored through the passing seasons of the year. Wild animals are his special concern and His aspect of the Horned God, with antlered helmet was the Christian source of titling Pagans as Satan worshippers. The God's domains are the untouched natural lands whether mountain or desert or forest. The stars, too are his. And his symbols include: sword, horns, spears, wand, knife, arrow, and sickle.

GODDESS: the divine Universal Mother, source of fertility, wisdom and love. Often depicted in 3 in 1 aspects of: Maiden, Mother, and Crone. Her gift is Life and She is all Nature. The moon is her symbol, as are the cauldron, mirror and five-petaled flowers, to name but a few. Also called the Goddess Mother. The 4th Face of the Goddess: is that which is never seen, the dark side of the moon; the Face of Death. Some say the source of Her power. She is the female aspect which pervades all of the universe in vast interrelationships of every possible sort, providing impetus, creative spark and more. It is capable of being perceived in many ways depending on the perceiver and transcends time as well as space. Most perceptions of the great goddesses are valid in their own aspects and are or can be of considerable value. Pagans often choose the archetypal maiden goddess as patroness of things fresh and new, the mother or lady as patroness of challenge, passion, creation and nurturing and the crone goddess for patroness of wisdom and judgment. Such perceptions enable us to form close emotional and magickal links with goddesshood.

GRAVE GOODS: is NOT stuff dug up from graves!!! or grave stones!!! This is a collection of memorabilia, collected for someone who has just passed over, often then contained in a bag, then buried or cremated when the person is done. It can be things like pictures or herbs to 'good wishes' & spells of an easy transformation.

GREAT RITE, THE The symbolic sexual union of the Goddess and the God which is enacted at Bealtaine in most traditions, and at other Sabbats in many others. It symbolizes the primal act of creation from which all life comes. The sexual union is symbolized by ritually placing the athame, inside the chalice of cauldron, a womb symbol. 2) Also known as "Sacred Marriage." An actual sexual union between high priest and high priestess, or a sexual union between a initiator and a neophyte (seeker) during initiation which passes the dormant power of the initiator into the seeker. 3) Sexual Ritual is the main part of a 3rd Degree Initiation of some Traditions.

GRIMOIRE: a magical workbook with information on rituals, magickal properties of natural objects, preparation of ritual equipment. Many include a, 'catalog of spirits'. One of the most famous is 'The Key of Solomon'.

GREENWICH TIME: a term used in Astrology, Greenwich is where the meridian passes over & when the British set up a standard to make time worldwide,uniform; they started here at the time the Sun passed over. From this start, Time Zones were set up to cover large areas & Daylight Savings used to utilize sunlit hours but these are artificial times of convience for human use.

GROUNDING: 1) To disperse excess energy generated during a magickal rite by sending it into the earth. It can also mean the process of centering ones self in the physical world both before and after any ritual. 2) the act of dispelling negative emotions and energies from the physical body.

GROVE: 1) organized Pagan or Wiccan group similar to a coven but composed of members who are learning and being trained in worship and celebration. See OUTER COURT 2) A group of individuals who follow Druidical teachings. 3) Also refers to a group larger than thirteen.

HALLUCINOGENIC- produces hallucinations which are defined in many different ways such as delirium, seeing beyond the veil, going nuts, expanding your mind, etc. opinions vary as to whether they should be used.

HAND, PROJECTIVE: the right hand, which emits energies.

HAND, RECEPTIVE: the left hand, which receives energies.

HANDFASTING: 1) the Wiccan, Pagan, & Gypsy wedding. 2) can also refer to a solemn betrothal. In some traditions, it is a permanent joining while in others it is only for as long as both partners agree to be joined. 3) This is the Rite of Pagan marriage, traditionally contracted for a specific period of time depending on ones tradition. It is renewed only if both parties agree. In Old Irish the word for handfasting is lanamnas. 4) Within the Druidic traditions this was usually an eternal vow taken with a soul mate. 5) There are 3 basic marriage handfasting: For a year & a day; For a lifetime; and For time & eternity. Unlike a marriage until 'death do you part', a handfasting will stop, if the love stops (usually).

HEATHEN: a person who dwells on the heath..

HENOTHEIST: one who worships one 'God' but does not deny the existence or value of other 'Gods'. Some Dianics are Henotheists.

HERB: a plant used in cooking , cosmetics, medically and/or in magick.

HERBALISM: 1) the practice of growing, gathering & using herbs. 2) The art of using herbs to facilitate human needs both magickally and medicinally.

HERA: 1) a Greek Goddess. 2) a female her'o'.

HEREDITARY TRADITION: when one is born into a Craft family and trained by a parent, grandparent, etc. Family loyalty was the surest way of secrecy; Y Dynion Mwyn is derived from a Hereditary Tradition. Pockets or Families of Hereditary Witches still exist in Europe and America, carrying on the family tradition. They are usually extremely secretive, preferring to work alone or only within their family. Their form of Witchcraft is different from that known as Wicca. There are some who claim to be descendants of such families. Since Hereditary status seems to be extremely prestigious, and difficult to check, false claims do happen. Some hereditary Witches express a low opinion of Witches of the revived traditions.

HEX: to work Magick to cause bad luck, or to protect...from the German word for Witch. a Hexenmeister is one who practices the U.S. this is found mostly among the Pennsylvania Dutch. (Also see Curse)

HEXAGRAM: six pointed star or six sided figure used in talismanic Magick.

HIGH PRIESTESS / HPS: a high statused, female practitioner. One who has passed several tests and initiations. Female co-ruler of the coven and female representative of the goddess.

HIGH PRIEST / HP: the counterpart of the High Priestess. Male co-ruler of the coven; male representative of the god.

HOROSCOPE: is the computation of ASTROLOGY, & presented in a CHART. It is erroneous to lump blanket predictions, such as found in the daily newspaper; under this term.

HOROSCOPE, TO CAST: is the exercise of computing the HOROSCOPE.

HUNA: 1.) the traditional Pagan religion of Hawaii 2.) a magico-religious system invented by Max Freedom Long, who is attempting to recreate what he thought the original HUNA must have been like. Most who consider themselves to be practicing HUNA are practicing the later.

HYPNOSIS: a method of making close contact with the subconscious mind which may be self induced or induced by another.

ICONOCLASM: first, icon is like a statue of a Goddess; 'OCLASM' is the act of breaking icons, or religious images. It can also refer to the act of attacking the beliefs of another; such as those we call the Christian Right, Fundis or Thumpers.

IMAGES (symbols of the Goddess or God): that which is chosen by a group or individual to represent or symbolize an aspect of the divine by its appropriateness. Such objects must be exactly right in every way. One reveres the Goddess or the God which is symbolized thereby, rather than the statue, shell, tree, horns or whatever, which is the icon.

IMBOLC: also called Oimelc, Brigid (see Candlemas). The festival celebrated Feb. 2nd marking the first stirrings of Spring as the Goddess recovers from giving birth to the God. A day which honors the Virgin, Goddess as the youthful bride of the returning Sun God. Also called: Candlemas, Imbolg, Lupercalia, Feast of Pan, Feast of Torches, Feast of Waxing Light, Oimelc, Brigit's Day, Snowdrop Festival, among others. Often a traditional time for self dedication or initiation. Pronounced: IM bulk.

IMMANENT: means something abiding in, inherit of, a natural & inborn quality.

INCANTATION: spoken charm; also called a cantrip.

INCENSE, COMBUSTIBLE: selfburning incense containing potassium nitrate, usually in cone, block or stick form. NOTE: incense is an Air Element symbol.

INCENSE, NONCOMBUSTIBLE: incense without potassium nitrate, requiring heat to release the scent.

INCUBUS: an oversexed male demon or spirit. Male wraith form projected for purposes of sexual intercourse. In historical writings these Inccubi seem to be associated with Christians who have psycho/sexual problems.

INFUSION: a liquid produced by soaking herbs in very hot water (not boiling!). A tea, brew, or potion.

INITIATE: 1.) a Witch, Pagan or magician who has been formally inducted into the practice or priesthood of Wicca, Paganism or ritual Magick. 2.) a Witch or Pagan who has experienced the initiatory transformation at the spiritual hands of the Old Ones. 3.) one who has experienced the initiatory transformation at the hands of other Pagans or Witches.

INITIATION: 1.) a profound realization and understanding within the mind and soul formalized by ceremony. 2.) a formal ritual or introductory process, or admitting; of a new member into a group (coven).

INNER CIRCLE: 1) In some Covens the group is composed of initiates only; 2) in other groups the Inner Circle is composed of leaders who are initiates of the third degree or elders.

INNER PLANE TRAVEL: technique of guided imagery wherein a symbolic, archetypal tale or legend is narrated and the listener follows along with personal thoughts and imagery. These are extremely valuable since the story or myth can be experienced by the subconscious.

INTUITION: a term describing psychic information that unexpectedly reaches the Conscious Mind.

ISIAN TRADITION: 1) a Wiccan tradition founded in Texas by an English Traditional Wiccan High Priestess and a Qabalistic ceremonial magician. It is Egyptian-oriented, and its training and initiatory system are based on the Qabalistic Tree of Life. 2.) a Wiccan tradition founded in Canada and consisting of a family of related covens including Isis-Artemis, Isis-Urania, and others. It is basically English Traditional in approach. 3.) a Pagan tradition founded by The Fellowship of Isis, and originating in Ireland.

INVOCATION: 1) Calling down higher powers through ritual; 2) Call on a God or Goddess to come into and control the person invoking. The act of drawing the aspect of a deity into ones physical self. The rite of drawing down the moon is an example. 3) An appeal or petition to a higher power/s. 4) a prayer. 5) a request for a Diety's appearance or attendance during ritual. 6) the practice that produces an awareness of Deity within.


KAHUNA: a priest of Huna (See Huna).

KAMEA: the numbered square relating to a planet.

KEY OF SOLOMON: a famous grimoire, see also grimoire

KELTOI: The Greek name for the ancient Celts. Greek writings give us our first glimpse into the culture of the Celtic people dating from around 700 BCE.

KING: in Celtic/Druid magick, there is the Holly King of the waning year & his twin, Oak King of the waxing year. They switch at Summer Solstice, Oak from Holly. The poem 'Who Killed Cock Robin?' has it's originals in this myth rather than English political history. (?) KINGING: some Wicca use this ritual for a man of middle age. SEE QUEENING...

KINGSTONE TRADITION: A conservative American form of British Traditional Wicca. It has existed in California since the 1960's. and was founded by a student of Gerald Gardner.

LADY: a term of respect for a Priestess, usually one who leads a group of other Wicca practitioners. THE LADY: means the Goddess.

LAMMAS: August 1st. Witch Festival. The Old Celtic name for this festival is Lughnassadh. It is the Festival of the First Fruits, and is the first of the 3 harvests. This festival also marks the change of the Threefold Goddess energies from that of Mother to Crone.

LATITUDE: used in Astrology; Latitude ON EARTH is distances North & South from the Equator. However CELESTIAL LATITUDE is the distances North & South of the ECLIPTIC.

LAW OF RESPONSIBILITY, THE: This is an often repeated corollary to the other laws of Paganism. It simply means that if you inadvertantly violate someones free will or harm them in any way, you will accept responsibility for your actions and seek to make restitution. This, of course, does not apply in cases where you have used magick to protect yourself from someone seeking to harm you. Also see "Pagan Rede".

LEMNISCATE: a mathematical symbol for 'infinity'; it is a horizontal figure 8, that is the #8 lying on its side... this term comes up in reference to Tarot, & traditionally found on the cards: I.Magician, XI.Strength, & the 3rd time, on the II.Pentacles which formerly was the 'key' card bearing the deck maker's signature. This no longer holds true, on newer, revised decks.

LIBATION: A portion of food or drink ritually given to a deity, nature spirit, or discarnate.

LIGATURE: magickal binding of a person.

LINKING: tieing together symbols and their power.

LIVEWOOD: refers to a tree in which a DRYAD or Wood Sprite type Being, is believed to dwell.

LIVESTONE: refers to stones, mountains, cliffs, etc. in which a nature Being is believed to dwell.

LORD: a sometimes used term for a Priest. THE LORD: is the God.

LUCK, GOOD: a person's ability to make timely, correct decisions or perform right actions; or place oneself in positive situations.

LUCK, BAD: 1) An unwillingness to accept self-responsibility. 2) opposite of good luck.

LUSTRAL BATH: bath of symbolic purification for the soul and spirit which is taken prior to a ceremony. Usually salt is added for consecration and blessing.

MABON: the festival celebrated around Sept. 21, on the Autumnal Equinox, marking the second harvest and change of Autumn toward Winter, when Nature prepares for the time to come. A time of thanks and reflection by many old & new civilizations. Named for a Welsh God associated with the Arthurian myth cycles. This Sabbat celebrates the second harvest, wine, and balance.

MANTLE: A cloak worn by the Celts whose color, fabric, and condition was often an outward sign of a persons rank or positon in society. Also a vestment of power, hence the Celtic expression "inheriting the mantle." A mantle is often reffered to as a kersey in Scotland.

MAGIC: the sleight of hand tricks, having 'physical', as opposed to 'psychic' exercise. NOTE: the word 'magic' is English from the Greek 'magos', and the Persian 'magus'. The words mean a Seer or Wizard.

MAGICIAN: used in reference to one following a system of Ceremonial or High Magick. To the public it often means the same as a Witch; one who practices slight of hand or illusion.

MAGICK: 1) art of bringing about changes in the physical world by the use of the power of the mind; action in accordance with will. 2) the movement of natural energies to create needed change. 3) the process of building up the natural energies of certain objects for a purpose, then releasing it. 4) a natural practice of mind over matter.

MAGICK, CANDLES: the practice of directing the energies emitted by burning candles to create needed change.

MAGICK, CIRCLE: see Circle.

MAGICK, CRYSTAL: the practice of using energy from crystals or minerals, to create needed change.

MAGICK, HERBS: the practice of directing the energies found in herbs to create needed change.

MAGIC, KNIFE: see Athame & Bolline.

MAGUS: (pl. magi)...pronounced MAY-GUS, MY-JI (as in eye). Archaic meaning: a hereditary priest of Medes or Persia. General meaning is a magician or sorcerer. Most often used to refer to one advanced in magickal practice.

MAIDEN: 1) the 1st aspect of the Threefold Goddess, symbolic for creation & beginnings. 2) a virgin. 3) in some traditions, she is the female assistant HPs. Traditionally linked to the Waxing Moon phase, & from Imbolc to Beltane.

MATRIX: a word in Crystal Magick that refers to the base of a crystal cluster, the main 'lump' part.

MEAN TIME: is the time our clocks show as compared to TRUE SOLAR TIME.

MEASURE: length of cord used to measure a Witch's height at the time of initiation.

MEDITATION: 1) reflection, contemplation, the turning inward to Self or outward to Diety. 2) quiet time used to dwell on certain thoughts, symbols or to let thoughts come as they will. 3) a method of observing the mind through relaxation.

MEGALITHS: The large standing stones of the Celtic countries which were probably erected as holy sites or for astronomical observation points. Stonehenge, on Englands Salisbury Plain is the best known example of a surviving megalith.

MENHIRS: The standing stones from Celtic countries wich are made of single stones or a circular series of stones. Menhir literally means "long stone," and surviving ones range in height from a few feet tall to as high as 64 feet tall. Brittany and England are famed for their many menhir circles.

METAPHOR: is a symbolic thought; a figure of speech which when said implies another, though not literally alike thing or thought. Ex.: "Sticks as close as a tick to a hound dog!" implies a very close attachment.

METAPHYSICAL: a 'catch-all' term referring to subjects of transcendental, or supernatural (hate THAT word!) reality.

MIDSUMMER: the festival celebrated about June 21, on the Summer Solstice. An excellent time for magick and is the height of the God's (Sun) strength and power, being the longest day of the year. Also called Litha, bonfire leaping encouraged fertilty, purity, health and love. Fire being the symbol of the God. Alban Hefin - Litha Sabbat; also see NOS GALON GAEOF.

MIGHTY ONES: Beings, Deities, unseen Presences usually Invoked during rituals/ceremonies. Sometimes linked to the Elements.

MILESIANS: A cousin race of the Celts who came to Ireland from Spain, via Scotland, as early as 1500 BCE.

MIND, CONSCIOUS: the controlled, intellectual part of mind that does everyday work. The rational part that thinks.

MIND, PSYCHIC: the subconscious, or unconscious, mind in which we receive psychic impulses. The psychic mind is at work when we sleep, dream, and meditate.

MONOTHEISM: The belief in one supreme deity who has no other forms and displays no other aspects. Judaism and Islam are both monotheism.

MONOTHEISTIC: the belief of honoring Divine Unity.

MOTHER: one of the aspects of the Triple Goddess, in this aspect She rules from Beltane to Lughnasadh.

MOTION, DIRECT & RETROGRADE: these Astrological terms refer to the apparent movement of planets through the Zodiac... Direct = FORWARD / Retrograde = BACKWARDS / at the time between Direct & Retrograde, the planet is said to be STATIONARY or IN ITS STATION.

MUNDANE: refers to the everyday, such as Mundane or 'civil' 'Name' would be your birthname of JOHN; nickname JOHNNY; Magick Name SEAHAWK. Goes for other items as well, a Priest's mundane 'job' would be a carpenter, for example. The UNmagickal things & side of one's existence.

MYSTERIES: profound, metaphysical facts which underlie life, death, the nature of the world and the universe. Such truths must be perceived not only with the intellect but with the deepest part of the subconscious as well.

NATURAL FIBER: in reference to clothes, bags, etc; these would be cotton, linen (from flax plant), silk & wool.

NECROMANCY: calling up the dead by Magick.

NECROMONICON: was the literary invention of writer, H.P.Lovecraft. This author is reknown for his wonderful fiction HOWEVER, he lost the rights to this work and others turned this fictional work into a 'religion' for the gullible. PERHAPS after these many years of 'worship', it can now be entitled to the title of religion. But only by a VERY LONG STRETCH of that definition! As such, it deals with altering & predicting life by use of 'entities' from other planes. And deals with 'portals' in time & dimensions. All kinds of nifty role-playing, fantasy & sci-fi stuff! It's also deals with all kinds of gruesome things - which is so sickening & repulsive to this person, as to make me wonder what kind of people would involve themselves in this. Though so far my encounters with 'practitioners' of necromancy, have been young persons. And they seem oblivious to the fact they are making some money-mongers VERY HAPPY! I most wholeheartedly urge everybody to STAY AWAY from this subject. To those who think they know better, good luck. The arguments FOR this practice only cause more REVULSION, and show the ignorant arrogance involved with it.

NIAM-LANN: A metallic headpiece worn like a thin crown or headband around the forehead. Often the front peice, which rested just above and between the eyes, cattied some emblem of religious significance.

NINE: A Celtic sacred number which represents the beggining and ending of all things. The square root of nine is three, the basic sacred number of the Celts.

NEO-GARDNERIAN TRADITION: A tradition founded on published Gardnerian materials rather than on Gardnerian initiatory linage. See also GARDNERIAN.

NEOPAGAN: or 'new' Pagan; a member of newly formed religions now forming worldwide. NOTE: all Wiccans are Pagan - but not all Pagans are Wiccan.

NEOPHYTE: a term used for beginner participants of pagan activities, sometimes incorrectly used in a derogatory manner.

NEW FAIRY TRADITION: Wiccan practice derived from the books and/or the teachings of Starhawk. See also Fairy Tradition.

NEW REFORMED, ORTHODOX ORDER OF THE GOLDEN DAWN (NROOGD): A Wiccan tradition founded in 1967 by Aidan Kelly and others. The ritual material is all original poetry, but the basic approach and ritual style was heavily influenced by Gardnerian Wicca. Most of the covens in this family are avowedly Neo-Pagan, but at least one adopted very British Tradition attitudes and went underground for a few years. The tradition has nothing whatsoever to do with The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

NEW WICCAN CHURCH: An association of British Traditional Wiccan Covens. "British Traditional" in this case refers to Gardnerian Wicca and very closely related traditions, e.g., Kingstone, Silver Crescent, Taran, Alexandrian, and similar branches of the craft.

NITWITCH, NITWITCHERY: a showoff & braggart; one who is inconsiderate & insulting; one who is self-aggrandizing at the expense of other's feelings, even one who is exploitive of their knowledge & their practices.

NODES: 1) in Astrology, NODES are the places where a planet or the Moon crosses the ECLIPTIC. An ASCENDING NODE is a crossing from south to north; & DESCENDING NODE crosses north to south. 2) Power Nodes are power points in the Earth, usually along Ley Lines 3) Power Nodes also refer to the energy points that have been prepared using crystals, in creating a PSYCO/SEXUAL MATRIX

NUMBERING OF HOURS: this is an Astrology term; the start of SIDEREAL TIME bigins the exact moment when the beginning of the ZODIAC is midway between rising & setting. This is called, "0h 0ms 0s" with the 'h', 'm', & 's' written little & up like a degree symbol is...and this means 'no hours, no minutes, no seconds of ST at the location concerned. The NUMBERING OF HOURS of MEAN TIME starts at MEAN Midnight which is 12 hours earlier than MEAN Noon; when the Sun would be halfway fron setting to rising IF it kept mean rather than solar time. This then is '0h 0m 0s of LOCAL MEAN time at the location involved.

NYMPH: 1) a nature spirit 2) derogatory slang for a woman who loves sex anytime anywhere from anyone.

OBJECT LINK: something belonging to a person; used in spells of Magick as the object link.

OCCULT: to conceal and hide away knowledge from the uninitiated. Latin: occulere; The secret knowledge of the ancients is considered hidden from the profane. You are very very very close now.

OFFICER: male assistant to the high priest; also called candlebearer or summoner.

OLD ONES: 1) a term used to encompass all aspects of the God and Goddess. 2) Alternative to Mighty ones, archetypal Witch gods. Also 3) those beings which visited earth in the distant past.

OLD RELIGION: 1) Witchcraft and Paganism; so called because they are either by lineage or spiritually, a system of beliefs which existed long before the Judeo-Christian religions 2) another 'Craft' term, which fits that song, "Give me that Old Time Religion' much better than the Christian use of it!

ORDAINS:: the traditional laws found in the Gardnerian Book of Shadows and The Thirteen Treasures of Y Dynion Mwyn; 2) often used to refer to the offshoots of those laws, often found in other traditions of Wicca. 3) Laws of the Craft, some for individuals & others for covens.

OSTARA: the festival occuring at the Spring Equinox, about March 21, marking the start of Spring. This fire festival celebrates the Mother Earth's fertility and return of the God (Sun). A time of new beginnings and reproduction. Also known as Eostra. The Sabbat observed at the Vernal Equinox, and often referred to as the Spring Equinox. This Sabbat celebrates balance and life renewed, but it was not a Sabbat for the old Celts until Saxons brought it to their attention around 600 CE. Ostara is named for the Teutonic Goddess Eostre and is symbolized by the egg.

OTHERWORLD: Also known as Annwyn, Annwfn, Summerland, and Land of the Dead. Each Celtic tradition had its own euphemisms for this place. See names given above for more detail.

OUTER CIRCLE/OUTER COURT: 1) composed of those in the beginning stages of the craft such as a Pagan Way group; 2) some Covens place their neophytes or beginners in an Outer Court group until they show sufficient promise to initiate into the Inner Circle.

PACT: 1) binding oath of the written type between a Pagan or Witch and the coven or grove. 2) Christian word meaning a Christian who contracts to sell his/her soul to one of their deities, Lucifer or Satan.

PANTHEISM: The belief in many deities who are really one because they are all merely aspects of the single creative life source. Celtic Paganism is pantheistic.

PANTHEON: The major deities in any religios system which make up the "whole" deity, or the complete power source.

PASSING OVER: A ritual observed when a loved one has died. Depending upon ones tradition this ceremony includes keening and candle lighting, feasting and revelry, sitting up with the body, ritualized farewell speeches, drinking, and storytelling. Also known or referred to as Wake.

PAGAN: 1) the word Pagan is derived from the Latin Paganus, "peasant," "from the fields" and "hut dweller", deriving, in turn, from the Latin pagus, "village." 2) They are also many groups of Priests and Priestesses practicing what we call "Paganism" or "Neo (from the Greek word for new) Paganism". 3) Pagan religions are "natural" religions both in origin and in mode of expression as opposed to artificially created ideological religions. 4) General term for magic embracing religions, such as Wicca, Druid, Shaman. Sometimes used interchangably with NeoPagan.

PAGAN REDE, THE: This is the basic tenet of witchcraft. "As ye harm none, do what thou will." The rede prohibits Pagans from doing any living creature harm, or from violating ones free will. It's origin is unknown. See also Witches Rede, The Law, The Law of The Cymry, etc.

PAGANING a term for the exercise of 'presenting' a newborn to one's Circle or Coven...see WICCANING or SAINING.

PAGAN WAY: an organization of Neo-Pagans started in the late sixties and early seventies. Many current Wiccan and Pagan organizations owe their existence to the work done by Ed Fitch and others.

PALLOMANCY: divining with a pendulum.

PALMISTRY: is the 'reading' of palm features to explain personalities & divine futures of the person. This interesting subject involves much more than just reading 'The Lines', there is shapes of the hand & fingers to consider; how they are held; 7 mounts of Venus, Moon, Mars, Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, & Saturn; nail shapes; there are 'lines' for: affection, fate, head, heart, life, & sun; there are fans, islands, stars, triangles, grilles & branches & NOT ALL STARS ARE GOOD! Some hands carry the Cross of Intuition' or the rarer 'Ring of Solomon' or maybe just a pinker Moon Mount.

PANTHEISTIC: the belief, meaning to see the Divine as everywhere & in everything. Sometimes explained as PANTHEISM is believing that 'God' & Nature are the SAME thing.

PASSAGES: an exercise of a significant transition: birthdays, getting over that lost love, initiations, moving to a new house, etc. A big change!

PATHWORKING: any of the archetypal guided journeys undertaken in inner-plane travel.

PENDULUM: a divinitory tool, consisting of a device hanging from a string; and the deciphering of its movement. This tool contacts the Psychic Mind.

PENTACLE / PENTAGRAM: 1) It is an ancient symbol with multiple meanings. It is always seen with its apex up. It can represent the four elements headed by the fifth element of spirit, or it can represent a human with its arms and legs spread to represent the creative principle over all creation. Satanic Cults often use the pentagram in an upside down fassion to show matter over spirit in much the same way that they pervert the meaning of the Christian cross; used as protection or for invoking or banishing magickal forces and entities. Symbolic of humankind made perfect. 2) The basic 5 point star is worn by Wiccans or Witches with one point up, and enclosed by a Circle; The symbol represents the Wicca Religion: the 5 senses; the Elements; and the human body; and a protective symbol known from the times of Babylon. 3) Symbol of power and/or protection when hung over doors and windows. Represents the Element - Earth. A tool for summoning the Goddess. 4) PENTACLE: is the article of jewelry or altar piece, etc. 5) PENTAGRAM: is the drawing. Also, penagram, pentangle. 'Pente' meaning 5, and gram/me meaning line; Greek. 6) Pentagram is a material object charged with psychic power and used for concentrating psychic power; 7) symbol of a man/woman standing with spread legs and outstretched arms; a miniature symbol of the Universe, the points representing the elements. 8) In Latin PENTACULUM. The points & center can stand for: Birth, initiation, love, repose, death & transformation. Sex, self, passion, pride, power & timelessness. Beginning, adolescence, adulthood, elderly, ending & power to move, change, and transform. And the common meaning, but arguable: Earth, Air, Fire, Water & Spirit. NOTE: the early Christians often wore pentacles, for to them it represented the 5 wounds of Christ on the cross AND the parts of the human body; that is: head, arms, & legs. Sir Gawain used it as an emblem on his shield!

PENTON: pendant or neck-piece worn during ceremony for devotional and/or magickal purposes. Usually it is a variant of the pentacle design.

PLANE, MENTAL: the thought process, conscious and unconscious.

PLANE, PHYSICAL: the physical body and its workings, through coordination with the mental plane.

PLANE, SPIRITUAL: a person's perception of life's existence, consisting of belief or lack of belief in the Divine.

PLEDGE: the Pagan self-dedication to live by established Pagan morality.

POLARITY: Polarity means that everything has two sides or two forces within it that are not wholly seperate. For example, we can draw power from our Gods for either good or evil as these diverse powers are not contained in two separate entities, but in one.

POLYTHEISM: The belief in the existence of many unrelated deities each with their own domination and interests who may have no spiritual or familial relationships to one another. Paganism is often erroneously characterized as polytheistic, but polytheism does not acknowledge a single source or force of creation, as most Pagans do.

POLYTHEISTIC: the belief of honoring the Divine through various God and Goddess forms or aspects.

POWER, PERSONAL: the energies which sustain the body and are used in Magick.

POWER OBJECT: a material object charged Witch energy and transferred into a subjects presence to effect a certain result. See crystal.

POWER POINT: the center point of a Circle or of a Pentagram; also a point on the earth where water is moving up or down in the earth; also a point at which ley lines intersect.

PRECOGNITIVE: is the act of knowing something before the event. Opposite of

RETROCOGNITIVE: knowing something after the event or in the present. That 'knowing' that something has happened.

PRIEST: a male initiate of the Craft.

PRIESTESS: a female initiate of the Craft.

PROSELYTIZING: the act of trying to convert another from their religion to your own. Vigorous, annoying, and attacking Christian proselytizers are called Thumpers (Bible thumping), and Fundies (Fundamentalists).

PSYCHISM: describes the state in which information from the psychic mind is available to the conscious mind. Greek: 'psyche', the soul. NOTE: a 'Psychic Assault' or attack, is when a person tries to impose and intervene THEIR will, over another's.

PSYCHOKINESIS: the act of mind over matter, or mind controlling matter by mind alone.

PSYCHOMETRY: the ability to receive & interpret vibrations from inanimate places & things. See: Empath.

QUARTERS: 1) see CROSS-QUARTERs..these are dates (2 Solstices and 2 Equinoxes). 2) north, east, south, west quadrants of a magickal circle or ritual area.

QUEENING: goes with KINGING, & is a Z.Budapest practice for mature women.

RADIESTHESIA: the use of a pendulum for divination work... but SEE below & PALLOMANCY.

RADIONICS: is any of several divinatory methods, where a message is received as in RADIO, through the air; but here meaning of an intuitive exercise.

REDE, WICCA: 1) rule or law. The Wiccan Rede:" yea harm none, do as yea will." 1) refers to a twenty-six line poem called the Wiccan Rede. Also called: "The Long Version" 2) refers to a eight line poem called The Wiccan Rede. Also called: The Short Version. 3) this is a moral code: Meaning no harm to another person or thing, with an unwritten but understood meaning, no harm to Self, either. REDE: means advice or council, not law. Though Wiccans tend to take it as an absolute lifestyle. It should be taken even further: that one actively do good works, as well.

REGRESSION: by hypnosis or other means, to cause the mind to remember or re-experience details of the past, or previous lifetimes.

REINCARNATION: 1) the doctrine of rebirth of the spirit. 2) the process of repeated incarnations (lives), in physical form to allow the evolution of the soul.

RIGHT ASCENSION / RA: an astrology term referring to the distance in the sky measured along a parallel to the Earth's Equator, like longitude lines but starting at the Zodiac beginning. As the Earth rotates on its axis each day, this celestial 'equator' & ecliptic is carried along with the Earth's Equator from 0 degree geographical longitude to 180 degree west & then back around to 0 degree again.

RISTING: the act of drawing a rune shape or letter, in the air.

RITE: a prescribed form of ceremony.

RITUAL: 1) (noun) a system of rites, the order prescribed for a ceremony. (adjective) relating to rites. General usage: refer to Sabbats such as "The Rites of Spring". Ritual is used more often when referring to Magickal practices. 2) A ceremony or festival. 3) A spell. 3) Specific movements and manipulations to produce desired effects. In religeon, its purpose is to unite Self with the Divine. But in magick, it's to allow the person to move energy in desired ways.

RITUAL CONSCIOUSNESS: the alternate state of mind, needed to successfully practice magick. This is the attunment of both the Conscious Mind and the Psychic Mind. At this time the senses will be heightened and awareness expanded, beyond the physical world to the energies of Nature and forces of the Dieties.

RUNES: 1) divination tools, remnant of ancient Teutonic alphabets. Used to divine current status of person or question, placed before them. The adept user can do spells and other works with runes. 2) letters of ancient alphabet used in Magick.

RUNE, WITCH'S: this is a poem chanted to raise power.

SABBAT: 1) A Wiccan festival which celebrates the changing of the seasons.. A time of rejoicing and celebration, when no work is done, except in an emergency. 2) One of 8 holy celebrations of the Wiccan religeon. 3) Wiccan celebration of an aspect of the Sun (God) as opposed to Esbat, the celebrations of the Moon (Goddess). There are 4 Greater Sabbats: Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasadh, and Samhain. These are associated with agriculture and animal husbandry (domestic like cow, sheep). The 4 Lesser Sabbats are: Mabon, Midsummer, Ostara and Yule. These are connected to astronomical occurences of Sun and related daylight hours.

SACHET: a cloth bag, usually of natural fibers; filled with herbs.

SACRAMENT: food, drink or sexual love which is partaken in the honor of the deity in either a formal or informal rite.

SAGE: a sometimes used term for a male 'Crone'.

SAGING: is the ritual for a man reaching this status.

SAMHAIN: This is the Sabbat celebrated at what is now called Halloween, October 31. The Wiccan New Year. It marks the 'death' of the Sun God into Summerland (Land of the Young), where He awaits His Rebirth. Samhain marked the beginning of winter for the Celts and was also their New Years Day. As Wiccans bid the God a temporary farewell, they reflect at this time, over the past year. It is a day to honor the Crone Goddess and the dying God who will be reborn at Yule. Samhain also marks the end of the harvest season. Pronounced: SOW wen / SEW wen / SAHM hain / SAHM ain / SAV een. Also called: Nov. Eve, Hallowmas, Halloween, All Hallow's Eve, Feast of Soul's, Feast of the Dead, Feast of Apples. November Eve Witch Sabbat. Also see NOSWYL CALAN GAEF.

SATAN: 1) means an opponent or adversary in Hebrew. Ha-satan designates a supreme evil entity; Greek: diabolos. 2) This is a Christian concept. The Prince of Darkness; Evil incarnate; The negative side of the Good/Evil duality; Pagans and Witches do not believe in this being, nor do they worship such a concept.

SATANIST: This is a person who has decided to identify with evil, negativity, and worships the dark forces of nature; This is a Christian Heresy and has nothing to do with Paganism and/or Witchcraft.

SAXON TRADITION: A Germannic tradition practiced by the people of Saxony. The Saxon path also shares some common elements with the Celtic traditions, including a veneration of trees. Their invasion of southern England brought their Pagan influence in contact with the Celts.

SCA / SOCIETY FOR CREATIVE ANACHRONISM: this group historically recreates ancient battles and lifestyles; much like those that participate in Civil War enactments. Use authentic dress & weapons.

SCRY / SCRYING: 1) the act of gazing into an object to still Conscious Mind, allowing contact with Psychic Mind. 2) to practice divination by crystal ball, mirror or other transparent/reflective surface. See DIVINATION.

SCRYING STONE: a stone or crystal used to see the future.

SEAL: representation of an entity, physical or non-physical.

SEALING: this term is used when a spell is 'sealed' by gestures or chant, etc; this to contain the raised energy into the spell.

SEAX WICCA: is a very modern reconstruction of the Saxon Tradition, founded by Raymond Buckland who originally helped bring the Gardnerian tradition to the U.S. It is derived from the Pictish tradition of Scotland and the Saxon tradition of England.

SECULAR: material & worldly as opposed to spiritual; thus ANYTHING not religious.

SELF: with a capital 'S' is reference to one's entirety of person, the spirit & soul, if you will.

SEPTAGRAM: a 7 point star symbol used in ceremonial magick, representing 7 tenets of: Balance, Harmony, Humility, Learning, Reincarnation, Tolerance, Trust. (Don't know the correct order.) Once it represented 7 angels who became 7 planets (the ones then known), called the Mystic Star. Other 7's include Days of the Week, Deadly Sins, Mounts of the Hand, Pillars of Wisdom, Sacraments, Virtues, & Wonders of the World.

SEVEN PLANES OF EXISTENCE: some people follow the belief: that you reincarnate at least 7 times within 7 Basic Soul Stages. The stages are: infant, baby, youth, mature, old, transcendental, & infinite. The 7 ROLES: sage, artisan, priest, slave, king, warrior, scholar.

SHAMAN: 1) a practitioner of SHAMANISM. Person who has obtained knowledge of the subtler aspects of the World by periods of alternate states of consciousness. Native Americans are quite adamant that only an 'Indian' can truly practice such with any real knowledge & others are just fakes & game players, who 'practice' at the expense of respect & truth of what Shamanism is really about. 2) A title given to either a male or female initiate of a religious priesthood usually associated with native American, African, Asian or Australian traditions. Pagan rather than Wiccan. 3) Comes from the extinct Ural-Altaic language called Tungus. They are the priests and medicine men of old tribal societies worldwide. Shamans or Shamankas, the feminine form, practiced in every known culture, and many are still active today. In many vernaculars the native word for shaman roughly translates into "walker between the worlds." In Celtic terms, Shamanic traditions are thought to relate to the stellar, or heavenly/planetary deities, as opposed to the deities of the earth and her functions.

SHAMANIC TRADITION: a very individualistic tradition of Wicca as typified by the practice of Shan of the House of the Goddess in London, England. Chanting, Drumming, and simple dance is their way of expressing love for the Goddess. Most Shaman Traditions take their ideas from various sources: Tibet, Finland, North America, South America and Celtic to name a few. They incorporate these aspects into their own rituals. Some groups use natural hallucinogenics such as marihuana and peyote. This path needs an expert teacher if natural intoxicants are involved.

SHAPE-SHIFTING: the ability of a person to change into animal form or otherwise altar one's physical features, either physically or as seen by others. It is a magickal technique of great antiquity.

SIDERAL TIME / ST: an astrology term, this is the apparent movement of the sky as a whole but which movement is caused by theEarth rotating. 360 degree of RA pass over a location in 24 SIDEREAL HOURS (which equals 1 SIDEREAL DAY);1 hour of sidereal time equals 15 degree of RA; 1 degree of RA equals 4 minutes of time.

SIDERITE: lodestone or meteorite.


SIGIL: old word for seal; those written symbols related to spirits, etc. of each planet.

SIMPLE FEAST: a ritual meal of sharing with the God and Goddess.

SITH AND SIDHE: Literally means, "faerie." Also Daoine Sidhe and Sidhe. This name is generally applied to all the faery races of Ireland and Scotland. The original word Sidhe meant piece, and Celtic faeries are sometimes euphemistically called "The People of Piece."

SKY CLAD: a term meaning naked, usually referring to state of undress while doing rituals.

SOLSTICE: occur twice a year, midway between the 2 EQUINOXES, producing a day with the shortest light & longest dark hours in Dec. & a day of longest light & shortest dark hours in June; both occur about the 21st in their months.

SORCERER: see Magician or Wizard.

SOUND MAGICK: has to do with energy raised by musicle notes, or pitchs, etc.

SPELL: 1) A way of working some type of Magick; to make things happen by paranormal means. 2) a magical ritual or an act wherin a person actively bends & gives directive to natural energies for a needed purpose.

SPINNING: archaic means by which raw fiber is spun into thread with a distaff or spindle. In archaic times, it was figuratively believed that the Great Goddess spun all of existence from raw chaos into reality. Spinning Magick was used among the ancient Norse and Germans as a solitary or group ritual. The Norns, the crone-goddesses of north and east Europe, were said to spin fates and destinies.

SPIRITS OF THE STONES: the naturally inherent elemental energies, of the four corners of a Circle, personified. They are linked to the Elements.

SPIRIT SUBJECTS: other words having to do with Spirit or Soul, are WRAITH (Raith) which is Spirit ECTOPLASM; ETHEREAL which is Spirit Matter or Ectoplasm. A Spirit emits these substances when it manifests in this dimension.

SPIRITUALISM: is the belief that the spirits (or 'dead' people) can talk to us in this dimension.


STAFF: a magickal tool, traditionally made of well-seasoned hardwood, straight, and owners height in length. Sometimes, chakra crystals are inbedded at the appropriate heights. A phallic and Solar symbol. If entwined with a vine, such as ivy or ribbons, and surmounted by a pine cone; then this tool is a THYROS.

STANG: Pagan staff, forked at one end.

STARS, FIXED / WANDERING: in Astrology; a Fixed Star is a regular star like makes up the constellations but a Wandering Star was a term meant for planets & our moon. Some Astrologers & horoscopes still refer to these as 'The Stars', which is just a romanticism now.

STAR OF DAVID: this well known Jewish symbol, represents the united male & female. Consisting of 2 triangles, the one pointing up is the 'male' & the downward pointing one, represents the 'female'; thus overlapping to form the 'Star', it represents ELOHIM (God).

STAR/ING ONESELF: a Self Blessing exercise that one does by taking Projective Hand & making a Pentacle motion, touching yourself: forehead, left breast, right shoulder, left shoulder, right breast, forehead. Resembles the Blessing exercised by Catholics. You want to visualize yourself protected & 'Blessed' during this exercise.

STREGA OR STREGHA: the Italian tradition of the Craft, derived from Etruscan Tradition; also used as an Italian word for Witch...SEE ARADIA

SUCCUBUS: 1) an oversexed female demon or spirit. 2) said to be a female wraith form projected for the purpose of sexual intercourse. In historical writings these Succubi seem to be associated with Christians who have psycho/sexual problems.

SUMMONER: in some Traditions, this is a male who is the counter- part of the MAIDEN. He is the assistant HP. See CANDLEBEARER

SUN WHEEL: ancient eight-spoked wheel which symbolized the year, each spoke symbolizing one of the seasonal or cross-quarter festivals. It also bespoke the cyclical nature of all things. The sun wheel is still used as a protective talisman with many metaphysical meanings.

SWORD: used to refer to any magickal sword used by a Pagan, Witch or magician, in conjuration or ceremonial work.

SYMPATHETIC MAGICK: Magick that makes use of the rule that anything owned or used by a person retains a magickal link even when separated from the person.

TABARDS: ritual robes.

TABOO: forbidden object or exercise.

T'AI CHI: is an exercise to learn how to regulate one's breathing, relax, and meditate. It calms.

TALISMAN (tahl-is-man) 1) Charm: an object empowered with magical energy to attract a specific force or energy. Opposite of Amulet. Something worn with a Magical property. Religious: A Symbol or item sacred for religious reasons. Totemic: A relic of your family/clan's animal protector or your animal guide. 2) an object with protective powers or the ability to affect chance or luck, usually worn as a necklace.

TAROLOGIST (tar-al-oh-gist) A tarot reader, Artist, diviner

TAROT: (Ta-row)a special deck of cards used for divination; a system of divination claimed to have originated in Egypt in ancient times. These cards are the ancestors of modern playing cards. Traditionally numbering 78 cards, of which 21 make up the Major Arcana & the rest are divided into 4 suits (cups, wands, pentacles, & swords) of Minor Arcana. The Major Arcana or GREATER SECRETS were lost through the efforts of the Christian clergy.

TASSEOGRAPHY: the act of 'reading' tea leaves in divination work.

TELEPATHY: the act of 'thought transference'.

THEURGY: A word meaning the magic of union of a human being with a Divine force. Invocation is an example. Is usually performed when seeking Divine power. Not common practice!

THREE FOLD LAW, THE: The only karmic principle of Celtic Paganism. It states that any energy released by the by the caster either positive or negative will return three times over. Also called the Pagan Rede or Law of Responsibility.

Transcendent Deity: A God or Goddess who is seen as dwelling outside, rather than inside, humanity. A non-invokable deity.

Transmigration: The Druidic belief that the life essence or soul of a living thing would pass immediately from their old vessel into a new lifeform after their physical death.

Tree Calendar, Celtic: The system of reckoning the thirteen lunar months of the year by assigning each a sacred tree which represents the character of the month.

Triple Goddess: The one Goddess in all of her three aspects: Maiden, Mother, and Crone. This triple theme of feminine deity has been found in nearly every known culture on the planet. She is represented by the three phases of the moon; waxing, full, and waning. There are also a few known male triplicities.

Triplicity: Sometimes called a Triad, trio, triune, or triple, this is a word used to indicate a Divine threesome which is really one being with three faces. Triplicities are very common among the Celts and are often seen in many of their philosophies.

Triscale or Triskele: A Celtic symbol used by the Druids to represent the sacred number three. It was a circle divided into three equal spaces separated by swirling lines which radiate out from the center.

THAUMATURGIC: pray for divine intervention, like 'God give us world peace.'

THEBIAN SCRIPT: The Witches Alphabet, a common type of writing used esp. by "traditionalist" and Gardnerian Wiccans.

THEALOGY (Thea low gee) Feminine form of Theology

THEOLOGY: is Greek, meaning the 'Study of God and the religion and cultures effected by them. . Thealogy: new usage & spelling, the 'Study of Goddess'.

THEURGIC: pray for yourself, like 'God give me more understanding with others'

THIRD EYE: this is the sensitive area between the eyes & up on the forhead about an inch. Site of a Major Chakra, the Pineal gland. It relates to intuitive input to the Conscious Mind & is often called The Mind's Eye.

THREE FOLD LAW: a belief that we receive in return three times whatever good or evil we do. A variation of the Karmic law were the retribution ratio is 3 to 1.

THREE PATHS, THE The three choices we are given in "how to live." See Left Hand Path, Right Hand Path, Center Path.

THURIBLE: an incense burner that hangs from a chain, and swung by a carrior, to spread its smoke (Air Element symbol). Used during rituals to cleanse the space within the magic Circle. Fire Element symbol.

TINCTURE: a liquid produced by soaking plant parts (herbs), in ethyl alcohol or vinegar, to produce a scented liquid.

TOOLS, PHYSICAL: the instruments, empowered with magick; used by Pagans. These would include runes, tarot, candles, crystals, wand, censor, etc. Tools should be physically cleaned, consecrated and even engraved, prior to use for ceremonial purposes.

TOOLS, NONPHYSICAL: the three most generally used are: music, dance and gestures. These raise power, alter consciousness and serve to unite Self, with Diety.


TRAD: Tradition

TRADITIONAL: Many branches of the craft claim to be pre-Gardnerian. These usually call themselves Traditional. This covers a lot of territory and depends on the area of origin (i.e. Wales, Scotland, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, Basque, etc.).

TRADITIONS: A sect or division within Paganism/Wicca/Magick. The use of tradition as "sect" is not a new use, nor is "new tradition" an oxymoron. Systems of training in the Craft: Some traditions are: Gardnerian, Celtic Traditionalist, Welsh Traditionalist, Y Dynion Mwyn, Alexandrian, Continentalist, Stregha, Fairy, Feminist, Dianic, etc.

TRADITION, WICCAN: a specific branch or SECT of Wiccan religion, with its own structured practices.

TRANSCENDENT: means 'it'...surpasses all, is supreme in excellence, & is beyond all human knowledge.

TRANSVECTION: levitation or projection of the astral body.

TREE OF LIFE, THE A diagram representing the All in Kabbalah, also the companion tree to the Tree of knowledge in the "Adam and Eve" Myth. Also Yggdrasil. The name for agave and a number of other "trees"

TRIADS: Prose writings of three lines containing morals and guides to daily living.

TRIANGLE: In Ceremonial Magick, a three sided figure used to contain a spirit, intelligence, demon, or whatever has been evoked; it is part of the method of protection for the person or persons who have evoked the entity.

TRIFORMIS (Try-form-is) The triple Goddess as Hecate, Selune and Diana/Artemis. Rare.

TRILITHON: a feature found in Stonehenge, composing of 2 upright slabs of stone, supporting 1 slab of stone crosswise to make an arch.

TRISKELION: this is a triple, overlapping triangle symbol and represents Fate(s). One side of each triangle is missing, and this gives an overall impression of movement & activity, of energy in action.

TRUE SOLAR TIME: an Astrology term; the Sum moves around its ECLIPTIC of 360 degree in 1 year, advances in the ZODIAC by 1 degree each day. NOON is the Sun's point halfway between rising & setting. SO when the ecliptic point in which the Sun was at noon yesterday, is itself halfway between rising & setting today, it is NOT yet quite noon but will be when the NEXT DEGREE of the ecliptic gets there, which NOW CONTAINS the Sun. This equates to a TRUE SOLAR DAY being a little longer than a SIDEREAL DAY, a Solar hour being longer than a sidereal hour, etc. This puts the Sidereal NOON time about 4 minutes later each day & 2 hours later each month.

UFOLOGIST (you-eff-al-o-gist) One who studies UFO's.

UNCLE AL Aleister Crowley, slang. Reactionist term to "Gardner was the father of Wicca."(If Gardner was the father of Wicca, surely Crowley was it's uncle.

UNDERWORLD Hel, Hades, the "waiting room" of the after life. Also see OtherWorld

UNDINE: an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane of Water or is associated with the WATER Element.

VIBRATIONS: magickal radiation of all things

VIBES Feelings radiating form someone/something..."good vibes" "bad vibes."

VISUALIZATION: the process of forming clear mental images by using the imagination and memory. An important part of magical practices, and is a function of the Conscious Mind. Imagined pictures used to see the unseeable.

VITRIOL: medieval term for "sulfuric acid".

VOODOO or VODOUN: the remains of several African religions brought to the Western world by slaves and later combined with Catholicism. Similar to Santeria, Brujeria and Spiritismo. Sympathetic Magick plays an important part in the Voudoun rites.

VORTEX: the whirling forces of the cone of power.

WAKE: A quintessentially Irish Passing Over ritual still used among the Irish today regardless of their religious affiliations. It is believed the wake grew out of an older Irish ceremony called, "fled cro-lighe," the feast of the death bed. Also seen as the Irish death ritual.

WAND: 1) a magickal tool, traditionally made of wood, 21" in length or length from elbow to users fingertips; and tapered base to tip. Can be plain, painted, stained and/or engraved. It's an instrument for invocation and represents the Element - Air. 2) rod or staff which is prepared so that it may be used for magickal or psychic purposes; usually to project some form of power. Traditional ceremonial Magick ascribes to it the power of control over the magickal element of fire.

WARLOCK: 1) "Oath Breaker" and "Traitor", from Scottish Gaelic dialect. Also refers to the binding of the candidate in preparation for initiation. Wiccans do NOT use this word for a 'male witch'! Its meaning is from the Old English (one source: Scottish) word: waerloga. 2)A word for an untrustworthy man, an oathbreaker, sometimes an eunuch (castrated male). It's thought to have come into usage by Witches to describe one who had betrayed them.

WATCHER: 1.) an elemental guardian, 2.) an Old One.

WATCHTOWERS, GUARDIANS OF: 1) A term used to describe the Elementals who are Energy Forms, Raiths or Spirits of the 4 Elements. 2) Originally used in the Enochian Tradition of Ceremonial Magick but whose usage is now widespread.

They are both visible & physical and invisible & spiritual. They are invoked during ritual as protectors of our Circle of Power & sometimes as advisors. Some 'set' these Guardians, during rituals in a more complex exercise than simply invoking the Elements.

WAY OF THE WISE Another term for Wicca or Witchcraft (even though Wicca does not mean Wise One, the phrase has taken on that meaning over the years)

WEBWEAVING: "Witchy" and Feminist term for Networking

WELSH TRADITION: 1.) Y Dynion Mwyn, the American branch of Dynion Mwyn, brought to the U.S. by Rhuddlwm Gawr in 1966. Derived from the Tribe of Dynion Mwyn in North Wales. What distinguishes the Tradition of Y Dynion Mwyn from other traditions of Witchcraft or Wicca in general, is the emphasis on a historical linage (alleged to have been passed down from Prince Llewellyn) since 1282; a focus on religious equality (either High Priest or High Priestess may initiate or lead a coven (or grove); and the passing down of handwritten copies of books of power, which include: The Owl (a Book of Shadows), and thirteen books containing magickal philosophy, myths, legends, history, and rituals. These books were named after the Original Mythological Thirteen Treasures of Ancient Britain. The tradition includes a body of lore and ritual associated with the Welsh Mabinogion and Welsh Triads. 2.) The New York Welsh Tradition. This tradition was originally founded by Ed Buczynski with the help of Herman Slater. It is derived from The Celtic Tradition as taught by the late Gwen Thompson. 3.) A Tradition of Witchcraft derived from the teachings of the ancient Welsh Bards and practiced by Keith Morgan of Wales. 4.) A Southern Wales tradition called "Nementon", which was brought to the U.S. by the late Gwydion Penderwen, who founded the tradition in the 60's and 70's in California, and is being carried on by his initiates.

WHEEL OF THE YEAR, THE: A conceptualization of the eternal cycle of time. In Pagan mythology the Goddess turns the Wheel of the Year bringing everything to its season. The Wheel of the Year is symbolized by either a wreath, a ring, a snake holding its tail in its mouth, or an eight spoked wheel.

WICCA: 1) The contemporary pagan religeon predating Christianity. Expresses reverence for Nature, viewing Diety in all natural things; uses magick; worship is of God (Lord) and Goddess (Lady). A follower of Wicca, is a Wiccan. 2) Meaning: wise ones, and/or to turn, bend & shape. Wicca is often termed the 'new name' for Witches, and there seems to be some argument as to its proper use. 3) "A religion of experience rather than dogma." 4) from an old Anglo-Saxon word Wiccae, a masculine noun meaning "wizard"; the feminine form of the word is Wicce. 4.) the British Traditional family of Witchcraft religions derived from Gerald Gardner's tradition. 5.) any of the modern eclectic Witchcraft traditions obviously related to the Witchcraft described by Gerald Gardner in his published books. 6.) a Word which has come to mean Witch or Magick worker. 7.) the Shamans or "Medicine Men" of the Celtic Tribe or the "Witches" of the village. This was the Herb Woman or Cunning Man of the English community of medieval times. NOTE: Anglo-Saxon, wicca is masculine & wicce, feminine; and means a person who Divines information. Old English, wicce & Saxon, wych; means 'to turn, bend, and shape'. Indo-European root word of 'wic' & 'weik'; also means 'to bend or shape'. Germanic 'wit', means knowledge, or to know. Including 'witch' as one of its derivatives.

WICCA CRAFT: Another term for Wicca; see below

WICCANCRAEFT: Witchcraft or the Old Religion. Word of Germanic derivation.

WICCANING: the act of parents, promising to rear their child in the Wiccan culture. Blessing the child.

WICKLIER-THAN-THOU: The Wiccan Equivalent of "holier than thou," someone playing games of one-upmanship.

WIDDERSHINS: 1) to move counterclockwise within a ceremonial circle or ritual area. opposite of Deosil. 2) It is the counterclockwise movement around a circle, to disperse or tear down negative energy. Used in binding spells. 3) A Teutonic word meaning to go backwards or counter clock wise. It was used to banish, diminish, or counter some negative force.

WILL: The Force of Self, the "fuel" of Magick. One of the cornerstones to Magick. See also, ITS, True Will, 93, Crowley's Law and Love and Will.

WISE ONES: the personifications of traditional God/desses and Hero/as, and ancient teachers.

WITCH: 1) Sometimes used name of a follower of Wicca. 2) Ancient, European practitioner of folk magick, especially that of herb and 'simple' magicks. NOTE: Saxon for 'wych'. 3) initiated male or female member of the Old Religion; one skilled in the ancient wisdom; practitioner of Witchcraft.

WITCHCRAFT: 1.) a family of Pagan magico-religious traditions deriving from pre-Christian Europe. 2.) European-diasporic folk Magick. 3.) Sometimes used by Wiccans as a synonym for Wicca. 4.) the practice of Magick. 5) the craft used by Witches, which is Magick. Especially, that utilizing personal power with the energies of natural objects.

WITCH WAR: A dispute between coven leaders, very often silly things with episodes of "I'm gonna ward you right off this plane." No real, self-respecting Wiccan over the age of four participates in one.

WIZARD: 1) Old English meaning, 'one who is wise.' 2) practitioner of Magick, usually male, in Old English, meant wise one. Not a Witch.

WORLDS, BETWEEN THE: other aspects & dimensions of the physical, spiritual, & psychological, etc.

WORT: an ancient word meaning herb, as in mugwort.

WORSHIP: in Paganism and Wicca, this means to become one with the gods during a group or personal rite and to endeavor to draw the essence of a goddess or god within, to see and understand from their viewpoint.

WRAITH: 1) see SPIRIT subjects. 2) an old term sometimes used to denote the astral body.

XYLOMANCY- divination by branch or twig formations, as in interpreting their patterns on the ground, on trees against the sky, or in a fire as they burn.

YESHUA: is Hebrew, for - Jesus.

YGGDRASIL- (varies:igg dra-sil) 1) The Scandinavian Tree of Life that holds everything together. 2) Sacred ash tree that binds Earth with 'Heaven" and the "Underworld" in Norse myths.

YULE: 1) the festival celebrated about Dec. 21, on the Winter Solstice (shortest day of year). 2) also called Alban Arthan, Jul, and the Winter Solstice. Also see GWYL CANOL GAEAF. It marks the God's rebirth from Goddess, and reminds us that Death's product is Rebirth! The American Heritage Dictionary says modern 'yule' is from Middle English, 'yole' or 'yule'; which comes from Old English 'geol/geohhol'; from Common Germanic, 'jehwla/jegwla', meaning unattested.

ZENITH: an astrology term...point when a celestial body is directly overhead. NADIR is the exact opposite.

ZODIAC: a Greek name given to the 'belt' of stars through which the planets APPARENTLY pass centrally through. The ECLIPTIC is the circle line on the celestial sphere (like an Equator), which lies in the plane of the Sun's APPARENT orbit around the Earth. The Zodiac then is divided into 12 parts called SIGNS or HOUSES: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, & Pisces. The in between of a House, is a CUSP. And these Houses or Signs are then part of an ELEMENT (count 1, 2, 3, 4 to place every 4th matching) - Fire, Earth, Air, or Water. Then you have POLARITY: Fire & Air = positive / Water & Earth = NEGATIVE. Further, Fire is opposite Air & Water, opposite Earth.

ZODIAC QUARTERS: the Zodiac begins at the Vernal Equinoctial point or Spring, where the ecliptic crosses the Equator south to north. The 4 quarters are divided by solstices & equinoxes. Each quarter is further divided by 3 SIGNS: CARDINAL starts, FIXED persists the process, & MUTABLE completes.

ZYZYGY: an astrology term...event when 3 or more heavenly bodies (that is, planets, etc.), line up.

ZILLS: finger cymbals used in belly dancing and in various types of dance magic.

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